Service aboard U.S. submarines involved wearing Red Adaptation Goggles in lighted spaces to preserve night vision for viewing instrument panels. The goggles solved one problem but created another: the red suits on playing cards were not visible through the red goggles. The Electric Boat Company published special playing cards with the Hearts and Diamonds outlined in black and the red indices repeated in black. The cards were printed by Brown & Bigelow Co. of St. Paul, Minnesota. Awkward at best, they were only partially successful either by day or by night. However, the deck emphasises the importance attached to playing cards for servicemen.