I thought it would be interesting to present some of the early references to playing cards in England. At the Bodleian Library, Oxford there is an online archive of newspapers: 17th and 18th Century Nichols Newspapers Collection, https://tinyurl.galegroup.com/tinyurl/9PygB7. Shelfmark Number: Nich. newsp. 57C; Source Library: Bodleian Libraries; Copyright Statement: © Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford. There are fascinating descriptions of events from this period and many of the newspapers include advertisements for playing cards and announcements of the ban on imported cards introduced by Charles II and the occasional seizure of contraband cards. Some of the adverts relate to standard packs and others to the non-standard engraved ones such as those by Creake and Lenthall. The later snippets are from another online archive of British periodicals run by ProQuest. This is a large database with 59,893 items on playing cards, although this does include several duplicates and items on card-playing. Consequently, there is too much for just one blog page, so more will follow. I have also added some of the 19th century adverts for cards in the pages on individual makers.
To remind ourselves of the kind of cards that were around at the time, here's a colourful QH.
The earliest piece I found was the announcement of the ban on the importation of foreign cards. Because of the nature and size of the downloads I have had to take screenshots of the relevant passages in the text, so that sometimes a single text has had to be broken down into two or three pieces.
In the same year there is reference to a new office in London for sealing packs of cards.
Another similar notice is reproduced in a magazine of 1821.
In the next year we find adverts for the cards of the maker Robert Whitfield, who was appointed surveyor at the new Office, both at the Office and at a public sale in a coffee house near the Royal Exchange. The latter advert lists different grades of card and gives the prices per gross. The grades are as follows: mattriss (the cheapest), fine mattriss, fine and superfine (the most expensive). Note that 'superfine' was retained throughout the 18th century and early 19th, presumably to indicate the top quality; it is stamped on the AC.
Hall & Bancks with garter AS (Hall & Son), c.1825
The next three adverts are for J. Moxon's engraved cards. The first one suggests that the cards appeared in 1692, unless this is a typographical error, as the newspaper dates from 1697.
An advert for the Popish Plots pack.
The new tax of 6d (sixpence) per pack was imposed by Queen Anne in 1711/12 and there are a couple of advertisements for the sale of cards at pre-tax prices, before the imposition takes effect. The first is for the cards of Archibald Vans (sometimes Vaus/Voss). Whether some of these are spelling mistakes, or whether he had a French name, which clerks couldn't spell, is not at all clear.
An early advert from just after the imposition of the tax.
One of many lists from John Lenthall, which appear in various years around this time. By 1721 the list contains only 12 packs rather than 21.
An advert for cards by Edward Warman.
An advert for engraved musical cards by B. Creake, along with an advert for music.
An interesting announcement of the seizure of contraband cards in Scotland.
A political cartoon was published in this year using the court cards to represent rulers and countries. The hearts represent Britain (QH = Britannia). All the courts have been printed the wrong way round. The yellow marks are from the online image, as I have used the search words "playing cards", so each occurrence is highlighted (inaccurately in places!!). I don't know how to get rid of them in this and subsequent texts.
The last two examples from the 18th century come from the British Museum. I'm most grateful to Mike goodall for sending me photocopies of them. Note the reference to piquet (picket) and ombre (quadrille) packs in the Turner advert (1744-50): these had 32 and 40 cards, respectively, the latter having no 8s-10s.
An announcement for the new Ludlow's Knights Cards.
Around the same time there is a wrapper from Thomas Wheeler, the maker of the Ludlow cards, in the British Museum (again thanks to Mike Goodall) on which it clearly states that he was apprenticed to ("from") Gibson. Sadly, the address is difficult to read.
A description of a novel non-standard pack. The first part of the text is rather rambling and is about card-players rather than the new cards. I wonder if they were ever produced.
Here is an account of the case against Henry Wheeler, who was sentenced to transportation in 1838.
In the same year there are advertisements for secondhand cards sold by Mudie's; the first is from June and the second from December. Note the reference to double-headed cards ("antipodes"), which are probably imported from Europe at this time.
An advert for S & J Fuller's Imperial Royal cards.
An early De La Rue advertisement, as the firm only started selling cards in that year.
There are few adverts for Reynolds cards around this time: this one has an interesting reference to the design of the backs.
The journal Once a week published a historical survey of the taxation of playing cards in Britain in January 1864 in the wake of the reduction of the tax from one shilling to threepence.
Review of De La Rue playing cards from The Field.
Above: Princess of Wales (223); Indian Jonquil in two colours (207). The Prince of Wales design (158) was introduced earlier, but was perhaps reissued for this particular season. For this and the other two, Fuchsia (219) and Sweet Pea (220), see page 59.
In The Athenaeum a Mr J E Gray suggested that it would be more convenient to have all the pips on the left of the court cards. Whether this was a spur to card-makers to follow this suggestion we don't know, but by 1875 turned courts were the norm. James English had been using turned courts since he started printing cards in 1865.
Above: standard James English cards
Review of Grimaud playing cards from The Field.
Review of De La Rue's Dexter playing cards from The Field.
Above: two versions of the Dexter index. Given the description in the text the top one is the original version and the lower a later attempt of improving it. Although the term 'Dexter' was retained for any kind of index, this particular system seems to have been discontinued by the mid-1880s. Queen Victoria's Jubilee pack of 1887 has very small standard indices with the ace being designated by '1'. Dexters of this kind were also used in patience packs into the 1890s.
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I'm Ken Lodge and have been collecting playing cards since I was about eighteen months old (1945). I am also a trained academic, so I can observe and analyze reasonably well. I've applied these analytical techniques over a long period of time to the study of playing cards and have managed to assemble a large amount of information about them, especially those of the standard English pattern. Read more...
“Royal Cards Reign of Queen Anne” cover historical events, both honourable and treacherous, during the period 1702 to 1704.
In standard English packs the Ace of Spades is associated with decorative designs. This is a historical survey of why this should be.
Dubois card makers from Liège in the Walloon Region of Belgium.
PLAYING CARDS: A Secret History
This deck was inherited from ancestors, it has has a family history surrounding it. Details of the lives of previous owners make it all so fascinating.
Video by Art of Impossible. In this video you will get a short overview of the most important historical facts about playing cards and their history.
Archaic Spanish-suited deck with 48 cards made in Toledo in 1584.
Gambling and Vice in the Hours of Charles V: card-playing in the local tavern
A facsimile of an early 19th century French-suited deck from the collection of F.X. Schmid.
Reproduction of Richard Blome’s Heraldic playing cards, 1684, presented to lady guests at WCMPC Summer Meeting in 1888.
Facsimile of “Le Jeu de la Guerre” designed by Gilles de la Boissière in 1698.
Corner Indices were a major innovation in playing card production.
Baraja Carlos IV, Félix Solesio en la Real Fábrica de Macharaviaya, 1800.
A presentation of the main characteristics of the wood-block courts of the heart suit.
This is a presentation in a more straightforward fashion of the work done by Paul Bostock and me in our book of the same name.
Some further material relating to cards from nineteenth and twentieth century periodicals.
Facsimile of patriotic 1878 Tyrolean playing cards published by Piatnik in 1992.
Here are a few early advertisements relating to cards from newspapers 1684-1759 and a number of later 19th century documents of interest.
Hand-made playing cards by French prisoners of war in Porchester Castle, Hampshire, c.1796.
A continuation of the development of the off-spring of the Paris patterns and a few examples of how the French regional figures have inspired modern designers.
A great many regional patterns were exported from France and subsequently copied elsewhere. Some of them became local standards in their own right.
Continuing our look at the figures from the regional patterns of France.
On page 11 I illustrated several examples of the regional French patterns from Sylvia Mann's collection; this is a more in-depth look at the figures of these patterns ("portraits" in French).
Facsimile of Tarot de Marseille by Iohann Christoph Hes, Augsburg, c.1750.
Notgeld - Emergency Money - was in rare cases issued on playing cards.
There are some interesting packs from Goodall in the last quarter of the 19th century.
1st edition of famous Bicycle Playing Cards printed by Russell & Morgan Printing Co., Cincinnati, 1885.
Primiera Bolognese by Modiano, c.1975
Facsimile edition of Swiss suited deck first published by Johannes Müller in c.1840.
Archaic Navarra pattern produced for the Pamplona General Hospital Monopoly by Pedro Varangot in 1786.
Navarra pattern produced for the Pamplona General Hospital Monopoly in 1682.
“Money Bag” pattern by Hermanos Solesi, late 18th c.
Illustrated playing cards featuring comical engravings and rhymes about saints, c.1740.
Navarra pattern by an unknown cardmaker with initials I. I., 1793.
Anonymous archaic Spanish Suited pack, c.1760
Geographical playing cards sold by Henry Brome, second edition, c.1682.
French suited German engraved cards c1610 to 1650,
“Jeu de Géographie” educational playing cards etched by Stefano Della Bella (1610-1664) and published by Henry le Gras, c.1644.
Cartes des Rois de France (1644) facsimile edition by Edizioni del Solleone, 1986.