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Thanks are due to the following individuals who have contributed articles or images of cards from their collections:

Peter Mark Adams, Greg Alonzo, Shirley Ashman, Lee Asher, Gene Barry, Amit Benyovits, Becky Bevan, Francis Bevers, John Bevin, Erik Blåsjö, Scott Blue, Albinas Borisevičius, Peter Bowie, Sallie Boyd, David Buck, Steve Campbell, Sean Comstock, Dean Canter, Mike Cooper, Michael Curtis, John Daniels, Neil Darbyshire, Frederic C. Detwiller, Emma Donovan, Marc Dorst, Dan Dragojevich, Alison Dunne, Camelia Elias, Vincent Ellul, Peter Endebrock, David Epps, Alan Ferg, Steve Ferguson, David Fiorito, Lauren Forestell, John Gallagher, Enrique García Martín, Tony Gibbs-Murray, Richard Giorgio, Steven & Marsha Goldblatt, Mike Goodall, Richard Green, Andy Grigg, Tony Hall, Mark Hayward, Ib Hedegaard, Hans Hinrup, Mike Jacobs, Saskia Jansen, K. Frank Jensen, Linda Johnson, Siobhan Johnson, Dalu Jones, David C. Kelzenberg, Jukka Kettunen, Valentin Krasavin, Alex Lamont, Robert S. Lancaster, Pavel Langer, Anthony Lee, Larry Lefkowitz, John Lillyquist, Ken Lodge, Maria Marcet, Angela Marsh, Cheryl McD,onagh, Kody McGregor, Tracy Moffatt, Mike J. Morrissey, Joop Muller, José Manuel Murcia, Larry and Tammy Northup, Dudley Ollis, Cunie Out, José Luiz Pagliari, Tim Paine, Daria Luisa Patanè, Marc Pavone, Diego Peña, Juan José Pérez-Castejón, Alberto Pérez González, John Perry, Joseph Pierson, Rex Pitts, Matt Probert, Jon Randall, Jay Recher, Kathey Renault, Elizabeth Richmond, Ruud Ruitenberg, Juan José Ruiz, Peter Scarlett, Klaus-Jürgen Schultz, Martin Shaw, John Sings, Roddy Somerville, Rod Starling, Lawrence Sullivan, Paul Symons, Jean Szawiola, Pauline Tait, Nick Thomas, Barney Townshend, Mike & Daf Tregear, Maria Alessandra Umiltà, Luz Ángela Vargas, Pat Waddington, Jan Walls, Donald Welsh, Adam West-Watson, Samten de Wet, Becky Winter, Lotte Wintle, Richard Woodley, Touya Yabuhashi, Valentin Zadunaisky. Also: Archivo General de la Nación (Buenos Aires), the Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, the Archaeological Service of the Municipality of Dordrecht (Netherlands), the Worshipful Company of Makers of Playing Cards Collection and the London Metropolitan Archives, City of London Corporation.

Playing Card Bibliography

The following works have been consulted in preparing this website:

Authoritative References

Agudo Ruiz, Juan de Dios: Los Naipes en España, Diputación Foral de Álava, 2000

Alexander, J. J. G: The Master of Mary of Burgundy: a Book of Hours for Englebert of Nassau, The Bodleian Library, Oxford and George Braziller, Inc., New York, 1970

Arias Divito, Juan Carlos: La Renta de los Naipes en Santa Fe (1779-1810), in LA SOTA no.28, Asescoin, Madrid, March 2003

Arienti, Vito: Il Solleone, dieci anni di azioni promozionali, editoriali, provocatorie di amicizia, di collezionismo nel mondo Europeo della cartagiocofilia 1969-1978, Edizioni del Solleone, Lissone (Milano) 1978.

Autenboer, Dr Eugeen van: The Turnhout Playing Card Industry 1826-1976, Aurelia Books, Brussels 1976

Bermúdez Plata, Cristóbal: Contrato sobre Fabricación de Naipes en Nueva España (1945), reprinted in LA SOTA no.28, Asescoin, Madrid, March 2003

Bethel, Leslie (ed): Argentina Since Independence, Cambridge University Press, 1993

Brearley, Douglas: A History of Waddingtons, in-house publication 1975-76

Cárdenas Martin, Mercedes: Dados y Naipes del Siglo XVI en una Huaca del Valle del Rimac, Peru, Boletín de Lima Vol.XXI, No.116 (1999) pp.42-60.

Chamorro Fernández, María Inés: Léxico del naipe del Siglo de Oro, Ediciones Trea, S.L., Gijón, 2005.

Chatto, William Andrew: Facts and Speculations on the Origin and History of Playing Cards, J R Smith, London, 1848 (online here)

Christensen, Thomas: River of Ink: literature, history and art, Counterpoint, Berkeley, Ca, 2014.

Cortez, Ana: The Playing Card Oracles, Two Sisters Press, 2002

Cremers, Filip: Kaartenmakers in Wallonië - Cartiers en Wallonie, Nationaal Museum van de Speelkaart, Turnhout, 1994

Cuello Martinell, María Ángeles: La Renta de los Naipes en Nueva España, Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos de Sevilla (1966), reprinted in LA SOTA no.28, Asescoin, Madrid, March 2003

D'Allemagne, Henry René: Cartes à Jouer du XIVe au XXe Siècle, Librairie Hachette et Cie, Paris, 1906, excerpts re-published in Antique Playing Cards: a Pictorial Treasury, selected and arranged by Carol Belanger Grafton, Dover Publications, 1996

Dawson, Tom & Judy: The Hochman Encyclopedia of American Playing Cards, U.S. Games Systems Inc., 2000

De Hamel, Christopher: Medieval Craftsmen, Scribes and Illuminators, British Museum Press, London, 1992

De la Rue and Co. Ltd, Thomas: International Playing Card Conference and Exhibition, conference agenda and delegates’ information pack including transcripts of papers, De la Rue & Co., London, 1957

Denning, Trevor: The Playing-Cards of Spain, Cygnus Arts, London, 1996

Denning, Trevor and Schirò, Joseph: Maltese Dragon Cards, in “The Playing Card” Vol.30 no.1, July-Aug 2001, IPCS, England

Depaulis, Thierry: Playing cards and the Origins of Woodcut in International Playing Card Society & Asescoin Conference transcripts, Vitoria-Gasteiz, September 2001

Depaulis, Thierry: L’apparition de la xylographie et l'arrivée des cartes à jouer en Europe, in Nouvelles de L'estampe, No.185-6, Paris, December 2002

Das Stuttgarter Kartenspiel: Introduction by Heribert Meurer, translated by George Brown, Württembergisches Landesmuseum, Stuttgart, 1979

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene: Fate, Fortune & Mysticism in the Peruvian Amazon - the Septrionic Order and the Naipes Cards, Park Street Press, 2011

Douglas, Gordon: Astra Games, in ‘Newsletter’ Vol.20, No.73, English Playing Card Society, February 2002

Dummett, Michael: The Game of Tarot: From Ferrara to Salt Lake City, Duckworth, 1980

Dummett, Sir Michael: How Little We Know: A New Hypothesis for the Origin of the Portuguese Type, in “The Playing Card” Vol.31 no.1, July-Aug 2002, IPCS, England

Evans, Joan (editor): The Flowering of the Middle Ages, Thames and Hudson, London, 1966

Ferg, Alan: See: Wayland, 2006

Field, Albert: Transformation Playing Cards, U.S. Games Systems Inc., Stamford, CT, 1987

Fisher, Margaret Sargent: The Devil's Picture Books, The Yale University Library Gazette, Vol. 20, No. 3 (January 1946), pp. 41-47

Fournier Museum/Fundación NatWest: Naipes Británicos y su Influencia Internacional, Diputación Foral de Alava, 1993

Frazão, Fernanda: No tempo em que jogar às cartas era proibido: Séculos XV e XVI em Portugal, Apenas Livros Lda, Lisboa 2003

Frazão, Fernanda: As Cartas de Jogar Constitucionais: História de um Baralho (with English translation), Apenas Livros Lda, Lisboa 2003

García Martín, Enrique: La Baraja Politica Moderna, privately published, Madrid, 1991 (courtesy of the author)

García Martín, Enrique: Los Naipes en el Cono Sur Americano, in LA SOTA no.17, Asescoin, Madrid, October 1997

García Martín, Enrique: Las Barajas de Símbolos Españoles en América, in LA SOTA no.25, Asescoin, Madrid, September 2001

Gardiner, Mary and Hayter, John: Catalogue of Happy Family Games (Promotional Packs), EPCS/privately published, 1997

Goodall, Michael H: Minor British Playing Card Makers of the Nineteenth Century, (vols 1-4), Woking, 1996-8

Goodall, Michael H: Chas Goodall & Son: The Family and The Firm 1820-1922, Woking, 2000

Goodall, Michael H: Alf Cooke Ltd: Printer and Playing-Card Maker, in “The Playing Card” Vol.31 no.4, Jan-Feb 2003, IPCS, England.

Goodall, Michael H, Sue Gosling and Keith Bonnick (with contributions by John Berry & Ken Lodge): Playing-Cards of the Cuming Museum, in “The Playing Card” Vol.31 no.6, May-June 2003, IPCS, England.

See list of Books on Playing Card History by Mike Goodall

Hargrave, Catherine Perry: A History of Playing Cards and a Bibliography of Cards and Gaming, Dover Publications, New York, 1966

Hinrup, Hans J: L.P.Holmblad - Danish Playing Card Maker: The Tarock Packs, in "The Playing Card" Vol.31 no.5, March-April 2003, IPCS, England.

Hoffmann, Detlef: The Playing Card, an illustrated history, Edition Leipzig, 1973

Hoffmann, Detlef and Dietrich, Margot: Die Dondorf’schen Luxus-Spielkarten, Harenberg, Dortmund, 1983

Houseman, Lorna: The House that Thomas Built, the story of De La Rue, Chatto & Windus, London, 1968

Husband, Timothy B: The Cloisters’ Playing Cards and other hand-painted packs of the fifteenth century, Piatnik, Vienna, 1994

Authoritative References

Husband, Timothy B: The World in Play, Luxury Cards 1430-1540, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2015

Jenni, Ulrike, Dr.: The Ambras Court Hunting Deck, Piatnik, Vienna, 1995

Jones, Owen: The Grammar of Ornament, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972

King, Francis: The Encyclopedia of Fortune Telling, Octopus Books, London, 1988

Kleczek, Marian: Cracow Playing-Card Manufacturers in Modern Times, in “The Playing Card” Vol.29 no.1, July-Aug 2000, IPCS, England. (English translation by Peter Endebrock).

Lehmann-Haupt, Hellmut: Gutenberg and the Master of the Playing Cards, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1966

Lodge, Ken: The Standard English Pattern (second revised and enlarged edition), Bungay, Suffolk, 2010

Lodge, Ken and Bostock, Paul: Wood-block and stencil. English card-makers and their wood-block cards: a classification of their distinguishing features, Norwich, 2014

Longley, Dianne: Cats, Cakes, Clothes and Cups: a personal deck of playing cards, limited edition and accompanying booklet published by Illumination Press, The Print Studio, Adelaide 1999

Mann, Sylvia: Collecting Playing Cards, Arco Publications, 1966

Mann, Sylvia: All Cards on the Table, Jonas Verlag/Deutsches Spielkarten-Museum, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, 1990

Marotta, Florencia: Sellados e Impuestos en Naipes Argentinos, Buenos Aires, 2007

Mētra, Jānis: Playing Cards of Latvia, in “The Playing Card” Vol.32 no.1, July-August 2003, IPCS, England.

Mētra, Jānis: Latvijas Kārtis (Latvian Playing Card Book), SIA “Atmata”, Riga, 2006.

Mētra, Jānis: Playing Cards of Estonia, in “The Playing Card” Vol.32 no.4, Jan-Feb 2004, IPCS, England.

Morley, Henry T: Old and Curious Playing Cards, Bracken Books, London, 1989

Murray Cards (International) Limited: Cigarette Card Values, London, 2003

O’Donoghue, Freeman M: Catalogue of the collection of playing cards bequeathed by Lady Charlotte Schreiber, Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1901 [digital version here]

O’Donovan, Diane: Di Gravio, A Rational Disposition: the internalised world of the medieval scholar and the pack of paper tokens, unpublished paper, courtesy of the author, Newcastle (Australia) 2002

O’Donovan, Diane: John of Rheinfelden’s ludus cartorum and the divisions of the world in 1377, unpublished paper, courtesy of the author, Newcastle (Australia) 2001

Pardo, Román F: Los Primeros Naipes Criollos Impresos en Buenos Aires, number 6 of “ALADA” ( ASOCIACIÓN LIBREROS ANTICUARIOS DE LA ARGENTINA) Buenos Aires, 1953, pp 5 to 12

Pérez González, Alberto: Los Naipes de Cádiz, in LA SOTA no.13, Asescoin, Madrid, October 1995

Pérez González, Alberto with Fulgencio Carrión and Enrique García Martin: Simeon Durá, La perfección de un estilo, in LA SOTA no.14, Asescoin, Madrid, March 1996

Pérez González, Alberto: Novedades de Pasado, in LA SOTA no.26, Asescoin, Madrid, March 2002

Plummer, John: The Hours of Catherine of Cleves, George Braziller, Inc., New York, [undated] c. 1970

Pratesi, Franco: Cinco Siglos de Naipes en España, in La Sota nº 16, Asescoin, Madrid, March 1997, pp.27-51

Rothe, Edith: Mediaeval Book Illumination in Europe, Thames and Hudson, London, 1968

Ruh, Max and Ruegg, Max: AGM AGMüller: 175 Years of Playing Card Manufacture, in “The Playing Card” Vol.32 no.3, Nov-Dec 2003, IPCS, England

Ruiz, Juan José: Naipes de Colección, in “El Coleccionista” no.24, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 1990, pp 14-17

Sans Ferrán, José María: Unos Naipes de Piel, Colomer Munmany, S.A., Vich, 1971

Segeth, Uwe-Volker: Spielkarten Jugendstil und Art Déco, Edition Christian Brandstätter, Wien, 1994

Silvera Antúnez, Marcos: Historia de los Naipes en el Uruguay 1724-2015, Ediciónes el Galeón, Montevideo, 2015

Šťáhlavsky, Zdeněk: A 19th Century Czech Nationalistic Pack, in “The Playing Card” Vol.32 no.6, May-June 2004, IPCS, England

Starling, Rod: The Art and Pleasures of Playing Cards, Xlibris Corporation, 2008, 2010

Suarez Alba, Alberto: A Vitoria, Barajas, Diputación Foral de Alava/Museo "Fournier" de Naipes, 1991

Tena Fuentes, Salvador: Testimoni Històric de Naipes Comas, N.E.G.S.A, 1994

Tesnière, Marie-Hélène and Delcourt, Thierry (ed): Bestiaire du Moyen Âge: les animaux dans les manuscrits, Somogy Éditions d'Art, Paris, 2004

Thomas, Nicholas: Collecting Australian playing cards in “Antiques and Collectables for Pleasure & Profit”, Coffs Harbour NSW, issue 28, August/September 2008

Thorpe, John G: The Playing Cards of the Worshipful Company of Makers of Playing Cards, InterCol London, 1991

Thorpe, John G: The Worshipful Company of Makers of Playing Cards of the City of London, WCMPC, London, 2001

Tilley, Roger: Playing Cards, Octopus Books, London, 1973

Tilley, Roger: A History of Playing Cards, Studio Vista, London, 1973

Trefl-Kraków Sp. z.o.o: Katalog for 1999 and 2002, Cracow, Poland

Watson, Victor: The Waddingtons Story, Northern Heritage Publications, 2008

Wayland, Harold & Virginia, Ferg, Alan: Playing Cards of the Apaches, a study in cultural adaptation, Screenfold Press, 2006

Willshire, W. H.: A Descriptive Catalogue of Playing and Other Cards in the British Museum, Trustees of the British Museum, 1876

Wintle, Simon: A 'Moorish' Sheet of Playing Cards, in “The Playing Card” Vol.15 no.4, 1987, IPCS, England

Wintle, Simon and Peña, Diego: Argentinian Playing Cards (part 1), in “The Playing Card” Vol.29 no.5, Mar-Apr 2001, IPCS, England

Wintle, Simon: Argentinian Playing Cards (part 2), in “The Playing Card” Vol.30 no.3, Nov-Dec 2001, IPCS, England

Wintle, Simon and Flaiban, Diego: Ernesto Flaiban, Playing-Card manufacturer of Buenos Aires (1936-70), in “The Playing Card” Vol.30 no.6, May-June 2002, IPCS, England

See also the World of Playing Cards Downloads Centre.