The so-called Tarocchi di Mantegna are a set of 50 copper-engraved emblematical images (c.1465) which were probably a social game, or an instructional or educational series. It is not clear whether they were produced by Andrea Mantegna (1431-1503), however, the subjects of the set are mentioned by Giorgio Vasari who writes in his Lives about Mantegna that he created copper prints of trionfi - another name for the tarot Trumps.
There are no suits and the images are numbered consecutively from 1 to 50, divided into the following groups: Society; Apollo and the Nine Muses; the Arts and the Sciences; the Seven Virtues and Sun, Time and the World; the Planets and the Spheres. There are a number of versions and copies by different artists. Of the known examples none were made into a pack of playing cards, but were printed onto thin paper as black and white outlines. However, woodcut copies of these engraved images occur in later educational or didactic books.
In the debates and speculation regarding the origin, purpose and meaning of the Mantegna Tarocchi series, some misconceptions have been perpetuated from earlier literature. Possibly they represent a humanist world view or cosmology of the day; the outward design and hierarchical structure, beginning with the fool and leading up via craftsmen to the aristocracy, the king and the pope, through the muses, virtues and planets to the Cosmic Principles. Each figure has a name and a number. In some respects they remind us of the Hofämterspiel. A distinction is that the Tarocchi reflects a world order prompted by humanism, with the aristocracy and the church ranking lower than the arts, the sciences, the virtues, the planets and the spheres. The Hofämterspiel reflects feudal society.
Card games based around the Virtues and Vices, or Social Subjects, have of course been produced from time to time over the centuries. Possibly the tarot trumps were merely an alternative or condensed version of these images, which most educated people would recognise, added to a pack of cards for the purpose of making a new card game.