The Master of the Playing Cards, c.1455-60
Animal suited playing cards, copper-engraved and uncoloured, by the Master of the Playing Cards, Germany, c.1455-60, possibly intended as models for use in workshops but also used for play. The engravings are distinct and clearly produced. The animal suit symbols, although depicting characteristic mannerisms and behaviour, are laid out formally in a clear arrangement. Playing cards such as these served as repositories or copy books for design motifs to be used by other craftsmen and artists, and for this reason it was important that the details and outlines were clearly legible and not overlapping so that they could be used as models. Such figures of flowers, deer, lions, unicorns, doves and herons, for example, recur almost identically incorporated into the border decorations and miniature illustrations of manuscripts or printed books, carvings or sculptures from the same period.
There appear to have been several sets of cards attributed to The Master of the Playing Cards for the cards vary in shape and size. In one series the suits are bears, lions, stags, birds, flowers and leaves, and there are remnants of other series with frogs, dogs, rabbits, leopards, dragons and so on. The number cards seem to run from one to nine in each suit, with three court cards in each suit, either a King, Queen and Knave, or else a King and an Upper and Lower Knave. One possible explanation for the diversity of suit signs is that cards were made to order according to the desire of the buyer, but more likely they were from the standard repertoire of stock images used in various other artefacts, including books, sculpture or devotional prints. Standardisation had not yet become established. The court cards are in the costumes worn at court.