The card-makers of Turnhout were prolific in their output and inveterate copiers.
Brepols started making playing cards in 1826, although he had been in the printing trade since 1800. In 1833 the firm was called Brepols & Dierckx (the former's son-in-law). Biermans (1875-1970) was a relatively late arrival on the Turnhout playing card scene.
Van Genechten started making playing cards in c.1840 and continued until the founding of Carta Mundi in 1970.
Gustaaf Mesmaekers founded his business in 1859 in association with Louis-François Moentack, who left the business in 1862.
40-card "A Todos Alumbra - Naypes Refinos" pack manufactured by Léonard Biermans, Turnhout, c.1880.
Spanish-suited playing cards made in Belgium by Mesmaekers Frères, c.1875.
Special deck made for La Banque Nationale de Paris by Van Genechten, Turnhout, c.1962.
Belgian cardmakers have been actively designing and exporting playing cards since the 14th century.
BG Bouw Dutch Building Company publicity deck manufactured by Carta Mundi, c.1980.
Standard Genoese pattern with French indices made by Biermans for Cigarrillo Holiday and the Estanco de Naipes del Perú.