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Playing cards have been with us since the 14th century, when they first entered popular culture. Over the centuries packs of cards, in all shapes and sizes, have been used for games, gambling, education, conjuring, advertising, fortune telling, political messages or the portrayal of national or ethnic identity. All over the world, whatever language is spoken, their significance is universal. Their popularity is also due to the imaginative artwork and graphic design which is sometimes overlooked, and the “then & now” of how things have changed.

French Playing Cards

Some of the oldest cards still in existence come from France.

Fragment of an uncut sheet showing four cards, mid-fifteenth century

Above: fragment of uncut sheet containing red knaves, mid-XV century.

Cards by Jean de Dale, c.1500

Above: cards by Jean de Dale, c.1500.

Four cards by Jean Personne, c.1495

Above: cards by Jean Personne with inscriptions such as "Paris", "Melusine", "Conte de Chalou" and the maker's name "Jhan Personne" on a scroll.

Card playing was introduced into France at an early date. The game of Tarot was also brought from Italy into France. During the 16th and 17th centuries France was the major supplier of playing cards in Europe.

Some of the oldest cards still in existence come largely from Lyons, a city in which the craft of cardmaking flourished from an early date and which became an important centre of French card-making. It seems that the provinces bordering on Italy and Germany were the first to produce playing cards. Indeed, an ordinance from Paris, 1377, forbade card games on workdays. Another ordinance from the city of Lille, dated 1382, when Lille belonged to France, forbade various games including dice and “quartes” (an early word for cards). There is also the well-known account of a certain Jacquemin Grigonneur who in 1392 was paid 56 “sols Parisis” for three packs of gilded cards, painted with divers colours and several devices, to be carried to the king for his amusement. No-one knows what sort of cards these were.

Spanish-suited pack by Benoist Laius, Montpellier, c.1712

Above: Spanish-suited pack by Benoist Laius, c.1712

Charles Cheminade Marseille Tarot, early 18th century

Above: Marseille tarot by Charles Cheminade

Cards from the 'Provence' pattern

Above: the Provence pattern

Above: Lyons pattern, c.1780

Above: Paris pattern

See also: The Dauphiné pattern   The Genoese pattern.

Much of the early history of cards in France is to do with standard designs and their spread, coupled with a keen sense of economic advantage. Having invented the ‘French’ suit system (piques, coeurs, carreaux & trefles), which required only black and red, French manufacturers were able to introduce economies of labour which gave their products a competitive advantage. Jean de Dale (active 1485-1515), Jean Personne (1493-1497), Antoine de Logiriera (Toulouse, 1495-1518), Martial Gué (Limoges, c.1538) and Pierre Marechal. Several examples of cards by Jean Personne survive (see below right) in museums and libraries.

French regional patterns, primarily originating in Paris, Lyons or Rouen, spread across Europe in all directions and many of their descendants survive today. See the origin of the “Suicide King

At an early period French card makers introduced the practice of giving the names of heroes from literature or epics of chivalry to the court cards: Alexander, Julius Caesar, Charlemagne, David, Rachel, Argine, Judith, Pallas, Hector, Lahire, Lancelot and Hogier. In each case a romantic story or legend is associated with the person named on the card.

Some early French cards have Latin/Spanish suit symbols, as do some early German cards, and the queens are replaced by cavaliers. They were used for playing games such as Aluette. Spanish-suited cards reached many different places, having spread along trade routes of the time. The only survivors among Spanish-suited cards in France today are Aluette cards (primarily of Brittany) and the French Catalan pattern of the Eastern Pyrenées.

By the fifteenth century French suit symbols - hearts, diamonds, clubs and spades - had crossed to England. During the sixteenth century Rouen and Lyons became centres for the exportation of French playing cards, and cards were imported to the British Isles from Rouen and to the Netherlands and Germany. From England, of course, they spread to America and have become ubiquitous throughout the world.

Playing cards soon attracted the attention of tax authorities in France. As early as 1613, Louis XIII decreed that cardmakers should place their name on the knave of clubs. In 1701 a further law was passed laying down fixed designs for the cards from each of the nine regions, so that stereotyped figures (portraits) from each region were produced which could be identified by the authorities. Some individual court designs reoccur in different regional or even foreign (exported) patterns, sometimes reversed or with a different suit symbol.

Cards by Bouvier

Tarot cards had arrived in France from Italy in the first half of the 16th century, with Italian suit symbols, introducing the idea of trumps. Subsequently, French-suited tarots were also produced. There appear to have been three standard tarot types in France: "Tarot de Marseille", "Tarot de Besancon" and "Belgian Tarot" but today most tarot games are played in France with the "Bourgeois Tarot". The esoteric tarot was also developed in France during the 18th and 19th centuries.

During the seventeenth century a number of attractive non-standard cards were issued, including educational and quartet games, heraldic or armorial cards and geographical cards. These have been followed more recently by important editions of cartomancy cards, several types of tarot cards and elaborately engraved costume cards.

The backs of playing cards used to be plain, without any printed patterns. As an economy measure, incomplete packs would not be thrown away. Instead the plain backs were often re-used as notelets, invitations, calling cards, library cards, bookmarkers, and so on more

At the time of the Revolution and the first Empire packs were published, artistically designed by David, Gatteaux and others, which harmonised with the new ideas. These enjoyed only a brief popularity and the old type soon reappeared.  See: Jeu de l'an 2

French Revolutionary figures on the court cards, end of 18th century

Above: Revolutionary figures on the court cards, end of 18th century. Stencil-coloured woodcuts, French suit signs. Images courtesy Dan Dragojevich. See also: French Revolutionary anti-Royalist playing cards, subtitled “Jeu des Philosophes de l’An II”, first published by the printer Gayant in Paris, 1793.

  • Nouvelles Cartes de la République Française

    The kings, queens and jacks are replaced with Geniality, Liberty and Equality, above which there is only the Law (the true sovereign of free people).

    Nouvelles Cartes de la République Française

    Above: Nouvelles Cartes de la République Française printed by U. Jaume et J.D. Dugourc.


Le Petit Cartomancien

Above: three cards and wrapper from "Le Petit Cartomancien" manufactured by B.P. Grimaud, Paris. The miniature playing cards in the top corners depict full-length 'Paris' type courts, whilst the rest of the cards contain divinatory interpretations and images of different personalities.   See more →


Cards by F. d'Alphonse Arnoult, c.1860 title=

Above: cards from a finely engraved deck by F. d'Alphonse Arnoult (Paris), c.1860. 52 cards.   more →.



See also: Pierre MarechalRichard BouvierBenoist LaiusThe Dauphiné patternThe Lyons patternGayant, 1793Cartes Comiques du Colonel AtthalinCartes Recréatives, 1819The Paris patternThe Genoese patternSpanish-suited cards by B. P. GrimaudCards for Algeria by B.P. GrimaudJeu Louis XVMauclair Dacier Sept Familles, c.1890O. Gibert, Paris, c.1850Translucent Playing CardsThe 'Parisian' Spanish patternFrench Catalan patternCartes EspagnolesÉpinal TarotCartes Questions-DevinettesBoisse English pattern, c.1870Grand Jeu Mlle Le NormandDieudonné & Cie, AluetteLe Jeu de MarseillePhilibertDusserreOrient-ExpressJeu Moyen AgeFrench tarotChamboramaGeneviève LirolaJeux L.G.L., ParisLivre du DestinSalvador DalíCassandre for HermèsLegendary Harley-DavidsonMasonic Playing CardsS.S. FranceMarché 7 Familles

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By Simon Wintle

Member since February 01, 1996

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Curator and editor of the World of Playing Cards since 1996.

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A facsimile of an early 19th century French-suited deck from the collection of F.X. Schmid.

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64: The descendants of the French regional patterns: 2

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A continuation of the development of the off-spring of the Paris patterns and a few examples of how the French regional figures have inspired modern designers.

63: The descendants of the French regional patterns: 1

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Continuing our look at the figures from the regional patterns of France.

61: French regional patterns: the kings

61: French regional patterns: the kings

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Modern English Court

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Modern English court style by Games & Print Services Limited, c.1997.

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Dal Negro Bridge set featuring old Vienna pattern courts.

Carte Romane

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“Carte Romane” designed by Giorgio Pessione, 1973, celebrating the history of Rome.

Sarde Pattern

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Sarde pattern published by Modiano, c.1975, based on early XIX century Spanish model.

Triestine Pattern

Triestine Pattern

The Triestine pattern is derived from the Venetian (Trevisane) pattern but with its own characteristics.

Trentine Pattern

Trentine Pattern

Trentine Pattern

Primiera Bolognese

Primiera Bolognese

Primiera Bolognese by Modiano, c.1975

Bergamasche Pattern

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Bergamasche Pattern by Modiano, 1970s.

Jonas Fouquet Navarra Pattern

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Navarra Pattern by Jonas Fouquet, c.1720 and c.1820.

Navarra Pattern, 1682

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Navarra pattern produced for the Pamplona General Hospital Monopoly in 1682.

Hermanos Solesi

Hermanos Solesi

“Money Bag” pattern by Hermanos Solesi, late 18th c.

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Dvouhlavé Hrací Karty

“Dvouhlavé Hrací Karty” (Czech Seasons playing cards) made by Obchodní Tiskárny, c.1980.

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AGMüller standard English pattern for the Royal Jordanian Airline, 1980s

Georg Kapfler

Georg Kapfler

Antique deck of old Bohemian playing cards of the German type manufactured by Georg Kapfler and dated 1611.

Genovesi Pattern

Genovesi Pattern

Genoese pattern from Italy.

I. Schenck, Nuremberg

I. Schenck, Nuremberg

I. Schenck, Nuremberg, late XVIIIth century

Modern Swiss-German Pattern

Modern Swiss-German Pattern

Modern Swiss-German Pattern by AGMüller, c.2000.

Skat Express

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One end Berlin pattern the other standard English pattern

Salzburger Pattern

Salzburger Pattern

Salzburger pattern by Ferd. Piatnik & Söhne, Vienna

Brepols Genoese pattern

Brepols Genoese pattern

“Cartes Françaises” and Genoese pattern by Brepols.

Dutch Pattern for Van Perlstein

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Brepols Dutch Pattern for Van Perlstein distillery, c.1960.

Rhineland Pattern by KZWP

Rhineland Pattern by KZWP

Rhineland pattern by KZWP.

North German pattern

North German pattern

The North German pattern appeared in the mid-19th century, derived from the French ‘Paris’ pattern,

Bavarian Pattern

Bavarian Pattern

Bavarian single-ended pattern by Vereinigte Altenburg-Stralsunder Spielkarten-Fabriken A-G., c.1937

Portuguese pattern

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19th century Portuguese pattern, re-printed from original woodblocks.

Old Bavarian pattern

Old Bavarian pattern

Uncut sheet of playing cards of the Old Bavarian pattern by Michael Schatzberger, Passau, 1780

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‘Monic’ brand playing cards, c.1930s

German Saxon Pattern

German Saxon Pattern

The German Saxon Pattern or “Schwerdter Karte”.

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The Bohemian Pattern, sometimes called the Prager Pattern, has roots in the 16th century.

Provence Pattern

Provence Pattern

The 'Provence' pattern contains figures which go back to the fifteenth century.

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Standard woodblock and stencil deck produced by Jacob Holmblad with double-ended court cards in the tradition of the French ‘Paris’ pattern. The A♥ features a red over-stamp referring to Jacob Holmblad's royal license to print playing-cards which had been granted in 1820.

L. P. Holmblad c.1840

L. P. Holmblad c.1840

L. P. Holmblad's house pattern used from c.1840. The K♠ carries a harp as in the traditional French-type cards; but the J♠ is sleeping with his arms folded and his shield resting behind him.